They explained that Hunter has a great vocabulary, and speaks in long sentences and has a very good understanding of language. When long instructions or a story was spoken to him, he was able to understand the general theme and answer questions about the story. When a single sentence was read, or short directions were given, he was unable to answer the questions. Hunter was using his language skills by listening to words in context to understand, but was unable to hear enough in short directions to follow.
I came home and wanted to know more so I went to Wikipedia which said:
"Individuals with APD usually have normal structure and function of the outer, middle and inner ear (peripheral hearing). However, they cannot process the information they hear in the same way as others do, which leads to difficulties in recognizing and interpreting sounds, especially the sounds composing speech. It is thought that these difficulties arise from dysfunction in the central nervous system (i.e., brain). APD has been referred to as dyslexia for the ears."
This explains so much about Hunter, especially how he combines sounds backwards, yet is able to read letters in order. And short term memory! Since he has trouble distinguishing sounds, it makes sense why it took him so long to learn all the letter sounds, because he had trouble differentiating sounds. The same letter would sound different to him every time he heard it, so it took longer for him to recognize them. The good news is Hunter doesn't have ADD. I'm really grateful about that because it would really complicated things if he had ADD in addition to APD. So this last week we've been making some changes.
- Eye Contact. When Hunter needs to memorize, i.e. sight words or spelling, we repeat them over and over again, first looking at the word on the wall, then face to face with eye contact. Sometimes it takes a few reminders for him to get focused on my face, but once he does it had made all the difference.
- Visual aids. He's still really young and developing his skills. So far he's relied on his language skills, we need to work on strengthening his visual learning to compensate for his hearing disability.
- Routine. I've made a chart for our morning and evening routines. Having the chart for our routine has alleviated a lot of stress off both of us. Now he knows what needs to be done with a lot less nagging from me. The routine also helps reduce confusion and chaos in his day when he knows exactly what needs to be done and when.
- Rewards. I used to waste so much time and energy trying to keep this kid in time out, it just didn't work for him. Then a friend told me about her marbles. Now we have a marble jar, and he can earn them for a chore, daily tasks like getting ready, studying, and listening and following directions. Then he can redeem his marbles for different prizes. For example, 1 marble will buy a stick of gum, 3 marbles will buy 20 minutes of game time on the computer, 5 marbles and he can pick out a toy from mom's dollar store box.
- Repetition. I feel like now that I understand what his struggles are, I'm more understanding and less frustrated. I expect to have to explain things to him more than once and in different ways, and once we find something that clicks for him, repeat, repeat, repeat.
- Kinesthetic Learning. Hunters strongest form of absorbing information is hands on learning. He learns new words and sounds more quickly by writing them out, over and over again. When he learns a new sight word, I will have him fill a page with that word several days in a row for him to memorize.
I'm no expert on APD, I googled a lot, and made this list based on things I thought would help Hunter. Every kid is different, these are just things that have worked for us. In case you found this helpful, click here for a copy of the charts I made. I laminated them and keep a dry erase marker next to it so Hunter can check things off as he goes.